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* Uropi Nove 77 * Uropi Nove 77 * Uropi Nove 77 *

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ramses

Ramses II, tempel Abu Simbel, Egipta

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Indeuropan rode in Uropi

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Se je ne fantastic mozo findo, in mol veti lingas, mori dod 3000 o 4000 jare, vorde somi a Uropi vorde, par lu tale ven od de som komùn Indeuropan rode ? Davos i fel de som glajad te un arkeologìst diskrovan in un antiki grub, dekoren pote, kupri id gori juvle, bronzi arme…

Di usvenì mo novem wan i findì su Internet vordiliste de Anatoli lingus: Hititi, Luvian, Likian, Lidian…id Frigian (Frigiane avenì in Anatolia mol maj posen, pos de fal de Hititi imperiu). De Anatoli famìl apcizì sia od de PIE matalinga mol pru (beròn 4000 jare for Krist), wa usklàr te mole "maj noven" komùn PIE vorde esistì ne in Hititi, we, odaltia, avì garen de laringi zone. Lu stalì sia in Anatolia (Turkia) wo de Hititi imperia vidì mol mogan id werì gon faraone. Su de mure de templi Abu Simbel in Egipta vid prodiken de famos bitàl in Kadec, wo Ramses II kambì gon Hitite. De legendi pol Troj vidì versemim funden pa Hitite.

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N'est-ce pas fantastique de pouvoir trouver, dans des langues très anciennes, disparues il y a 3000 ou 4000 ans, des mots semblables à des mots Uropi, parce qu'ils sont tous issus de racines indo-européennes communes ? C'est alors que je ressens la joie de l'archéologue qui découvre dans une tombe antique, des poteries décorées, des bijoux de cuivre et d'or, des armes de bronze…

Cela m'est arrivé quand j'ai trouvé récemment sur Internet des lexiques de langues anatoliennes: hittite, louvite, lycien, lydien…et phrygien (les Phrygiens sont arrivés en Anatolie, beaucoup plus tard, après la chute de l'empire Hittite). La famille anatolienne s'est séparée du tronc PIE commun très tôt (vers 4000 ans av. JC), ce qui explique de nombreux traits communs aux langues i-e ne se retrouvent pas en hittite, qui, en revanche, a conservé les laryngales. Ces peuples se sont installés en Anatolie (Turquie) où l'empire Hittite a acquis une puissance telle, qu'elle lui a permis de rivaliser avec les pharaons et leur faire la guerre. Sur les murs du temple d'Abou Simbel en Egypte est représentée la célèbre bataille de Kadesh, où Ramsès II affronte les Hittites. En outre, la légendaire ville de Troie a probablement été fondée par les Hittites.

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Hitimperia

De Hititi Imperia (in blu)

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Isn't it fantastic to be able, in very ancient languages that died out 3000 or 4000 years ago, to find words similar to Uropi words, because they all stem from the same Indo-European roots ? I can then feel the joy of archaeologists discovering an ancient tomb with decorated ceramics, copper and gold jewels, bronze weapons…

This is what happened to me, when, recently on the web I came across word-lists of the Anatolian languages: Hittite, Luvian, Lycian, Lydian… and Phrygian (Phrygians came to Anatolia much later, after the fall of the Hittite Empire). The Anatolian branch broke away from the PIE mother-language very early (around 4000 BCE), which explains why many I-E common features did not exist in Hittite, whereas it preserved the PIE laryngeals. The breakaways settled in Anatolia (Turkey) where the Hittite Empire became so powerful that it could compete with, and make war to the pharaohs. On the walls of the Abu Simbel temple in Egypt, you can see bas -reliefs representing the famous battle of Kadesh in which Ramses II fought the Hittites. Besides, the legendary city of Troy was probably founded by the Hittites.

Zis eke sampe komùn vordis:  Voici quelques exemples de mots communs:  Here are a few examples of common words:        

Hititi: asa, sa = Uropi so (être, to be), dalugaeš = longi (id dali) (long & loin, & far), da- = davo (donner, give), gima = vima (hiver, winter), gurta = gord (enclos, enclosure), haraš = arel (aigle, eagle), hulana = vuln (laine, wool), iúkán = jug (joug, yoke), kardi = karʒ (coeur, heart), lukkái = luco (éclairer, to light), malla = mulo (moudre, grind), melit = miel (miel, honey), newa- = novi (nouveau, new), pata = pod (pied, foot), šupparija = sopo (dormir, sleep), surna = korn (corne, horn), suwana = kun (chien, dog), taru = drev (arbre, tree), waša = vesto (vêtir, dress), watar = vod (eau, water), wiána = vin (vin, wine), harduwa- = erdad (héritage, inheritance),…

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Hatuliov

De Vort liovis, in Hattuša, de kebipol Hititis, Bogazkale, Turkia

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Luvian: adari = jedo (manger, eat), gaši (vizìt) gost (invité, guest), hawi- = ovin (mouton, sheep), hulani = vuln (laine, wool), i- = ito (aller, go), išta = sto (être debout, stand), luha = luc (lumière, light), mallit = miel (miel, honey), nanun = num (maintenant, now), ni-, niš = ne (ne pas, not), parta- = (korpi)part (partie [du corps], [body]part), pati = pod (pied, foot), waš = vesto (vêtir, dress),

Likian: da- = davo (donner, give), kudi = ko (où, where), ni- = ne (ne pas, not), pere = pro (en avant, forward), trei, trije = tri (trois, three), tuwa = du (deux, two),

Lidian: da- = davo (donner, give), brafr = frat (frère, brother), do (tis, jusqu'à, till) do (vers, towards), divi = doj (dieu, god), êmi = mi (mon, my), fra = tra (à travers, across), kan- = kun (chien, dog), ni- = ne (ne pas, not), s'fa = sia (se, soi, oneself), ti- = di (ceci, this),

Frigian: ber- = pero (porter, bear), dadón = lu davì (ils ont donné, they gave), eksis = egìz (hérisson, hedgehog), eti = id (et, and), germe = varmi (chaud, warm), gluros = gor (or, gold), gordum (pol, ville, town) gord (enclos, enclosure), kunes = kune (chiens, dogs), matar = mata (mère, mother), θri = tri (trois, three), wit (zavo, savoir, know) vizo (voir, see)(< i-e *weid- = zavo, vizo (savoir, voir, know, see).

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VW

Seni Hititi kar, 1950 jare for pos Krist, finden in Kitera, Grecia

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Tokhari o Tokharian sì un alten mol veti dotalinga we apcizì sia od PIE beròn 3500 for Krist po ito do ost id stalo sia in nord-westi Cinia, in de Xinjiang regiòn. Tokhari sì in fakt du mol neri lingas, be ost id west: Tokhari A id Tokhari B.

Le Tokharien est une autre branche très ancienne de la famille indo-européenne qui a quitté le tronc commun vers 3500 av. JC pour partir vers l'est et s'installer au nord-est de la Chine actuelle, dans la région du Xinjiang. Il s'agit en fait de deux langues très proches: le tokharien A à l'est et le tokharien B à l'ouest.

Tokharian is another very ancient branch of the Indo-european family which broke away from PIE aound 3500 BCE, heading eastwards, and who settled in the north-east of China, in the Xinjiang region. There are in fact two very close languages: Tocharian A in the east and Tokharian B in the west.

Zis eke sampe komùn vordis: Voici quelques exemples de mots communs:  Here are a few examples of common words:

Tokhari A o B: ak, ek = Uropi: oj (oeil, eye), ámpi = obe (les deux, both), áñme = alm (âme, soul), çtwer = kwer (quatre, four), i- = ito (aller, go), kankwem, ken.ine = ken (genou, knee), knán = kono (connaître, know), ko, keu = gova (vache, cow), ku = kun (chien, dog), läk-, läke = leʒo (être couché, lie), luks = luco (éclairer, light), mácar = mata (mère, mother), mälk = milko (traire, to milk), mañ = mon (mois, month), men'ki = min (moins, less), mísa = mias (viande, meat), mañu = men (pensée, thought), nás = na (nous, us), ñom = nom (nom, name), ñuwe = novi (nouveau, new), okät, okt = oc (huit, eight), pácar = pater (père, father), pañä = pin (cinq, five), pik-, pin'k = picto (peindre, paint), por, puwar = foj (feu, fire), pracar = frat (frère, brother), prak, prek = prago (demander, ask), ratre = roj (rouge, red), s.äks = ses (six), sále = salt (sel, salt), s.äptuk = sepdes (soixante-dix, seventy), se, soyä = son (fils, son), smimám = smijan (souriant, smiling), soma-, somo- = som (même, same), suwo = swin (porc, pig), tek- = togo (toucher, touch), träm- = tremo (trembler, tremble), tu = tu (tu, you), twere = dor (porte, door), wak, wek = voc (voix, voice), wär, war = vod (eau, water), wäs = vesto (vêtir, dress)

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tokhskriv

Tokhari skrivad

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Zis eke sampe od de 500 Indeuropan rode we form de Uropi bazi vokabular. I av daven da rode in li maj rekonli forme (po u ne-spesialìst), wim daven pa J. Pokorny in hi Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch id X. Delamarre in Le Vocabulaire Indo-Européen.

Voici quelques exemples des 500 racines Indo-européennes communes qui forment le vocabulaire de base de l'Uropi. Je donne ces racines sous leur forme la plus reconnaissable (pour le profane), telles que les présentent J. Pokorny dans son Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch,  et X. Delamarre dans Le vocabulaire indo-européen.

Here are a few examples from the 500 Indo-European roots that form the Uropi core vocabulary.  These roots are given here in their most recognizable form (to the layman), such as they can be found in J. Pokorny's Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch,  and in X. Delamarre's Le vocabulaire indo-européen.

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stepas

Indeuropane dutan kwaliherde tra de stepas, id in hel tra nolbe

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Indo-Europan    rode

sinad

Uropi

Alten lingas

alyos*

autre, other

alten

skr álikas = faux, arm ayl, gr άλλος, lat alius, alter > it altro, cors altru, oc, ca altre, es otro, por outro, roum alt, fr autre, gaul alios, virl aile, gael eile, gal ail, br all, got aljis, ags elles > ang  else = autre, tokhB alyek = autre

ābol-*

pomme, apple

apel

gal afal, br aval, got apel, al Apfel, nd appel, ang apple, da æble, sué äpple, lit obluolys, let abols, rus яблоко, tch jablko, serbo-cro jabuka …

bhardhā*

barbe, beard

barb

lat, it, es barba, al Bart, nd baard, ang beard, lit barzda, let bārda, rus борода, sc brada, pol broda, bret barv

bhei-*

abeille, bee

bej

gaul becos, virl bech, gael beach, al Biene, nd bij, sué, da bi, nor bie, ang bee, lit bitė, let bite, vsl bĭčela = abeille > rus пчела “ptchéla’, srcr pčela,

bhudhmēn*

fond, bottom

bond

skr budhnás, hin bhūmi, arm bun, gr πυθμήν, base > gr.m πυθ-μένας, lat fundus, it, es fondo, fr fond, por fundo, roum fund, gaul bunda*, gael bun, al Boden, nd bodem, sué botten, ang bottom, da bund, nor bunn = fond

bhreg-*

casser, break

breko

lat frango, aha brehhan, al brechen, nd breken, ang break + sué bryta, da bryde, nor bryte, gael bris, fr briser

kelō*

cacher, hide

celo

gr καλύπτω, lat celo, it celare, esp celar, fr celer, virl celim, gael ceil, gal celu, aha helan, al hehlen (Hehler = receleur) + nor, da skjule, sué skyla

kapyō*, kēpmi*

saisir, attraper, catch

cepo

gr κάπτω happer, alb kap, lat capio saisir, got haban tenir, al haben avoir + it acchiappare attraper, tch chopit, sc ščepati, lit čiupti saisir

donts*

dent, tooth

dant

sk dant-, hin dâñt, pers dandân, arm adam, grm δόντι, lat dens, it dente, es diente, nd, su, da tand, no tann, gal, bret dant, lit dantis, alb dhëmp

didōmi*

donner, give

davo

sk dádāti, hin denā, pers dādan, gr δίδωμι, lat do, it dare, esp dar, roum a da, rus дать, давать, sc, tch dati, dávati, lit duoti, let dot, arm dal

deksinos*

(à, de) droite righthand

desti

sk dáksinas, av dašinō, pers dast, hin dāhinā, gr δεξιός, alb djathë, lat dexter, it destro, li dešinė, sc desno, gael deis

dyeūs*, dinom*

jour, day

dia

sk dyáus, dyu, arm tiv, lat dies, es, por día, cat, occ dia, gal dyw, br deiz + hin din, lit, let diena, rus день, tch den, sc dan, pol dzień + alb ditë

deikō*

< montrer, show   doigt, finger  >

dig

lat digitus, it dito, cors ditu, es, por dedo, cat, oc dit, rum deget, fr doigt, al zeigen = montrer, Zehe, eng toe, nd teen, da = doigt de pied, orteil + gr δάκτυλος = doigt

deikō*, dideikmi*

montrer, show

diko

sk diśati, av dāiš, hin dikhānā, gr δείκνυμι, mod δείχνω lat indico, esp indicar, got taiknjan, al zeigen (montrer), nd teken, da tegn, sué tecken (signe)

dhugәtēr

fille,  daughter

dota

sk duhitar,  av dugәdar-, pers duxtar, arm dustr, gr θυγάτηρ, al Tochter, nd dochter, ang daughter, sué dotter, da datter, isl dottir, rus дочь, lit duktė

doru*

arbre,  tree

drev

skr dáru- = bois, taru, druma = arbre, pers derakht = arbre, gr δόρυ, δένδρον, alb dru, got triu, visl tré, sué träd, da træ, ang tree, rus дерево, sr, tch drvo, pol drzewo, virl daur, gael dair, gal derwen, bret dervenn,  (chêne)

dwō

deux, two

du

sk dváu, gr δύο, lat duo, it due, esp dos, alb dy, gael , gal dou, br daou, ang two, nd twee, no to, lit du, let divi, tch, srcr dva, etc

phōlō*

tomber, fall

falo

arm phlanim, mod p'lil (s'écrouler), al fallen, nd vallen, sué falla, da falde, nor falle, lit pulti, let pult (tomber), + cors falà (descendre)

plewō* + bhlew-*

<  nager / swim + / flow couler  >

flujo

skr pluti- = débordement, gr πλέω = naviguer, ang flow, al fließen, no flyte, su flyta, da flyde, nd vloeien couler, lit plústi, let plūdīt déborder, rus плыть, плавать = nager + lat fluere, it fluire, es fluir = couler 

bhrātēr*

frère, brother

frat

sk bhrātar, hin bhāī, av brātar-, pers barādar, lat frater, it fratello, al Bruder, ang brother, gael bráthair, rus брат, sc brat, let brālis, etc…

srīgos-* + *preus-

froid, cold

frij

gr ρίγος, lat frigus (gel), frigidus, it freddo, esp, por frío, roum frig, fr froid + al frieren, nd vriezen, ang freeze, da fryse, sué frysa (geler)

dhūmos*

fumée, smoke

fum

sk dhūmás, hin dhuāṁ, gr θυμός, lat fumus, it, por fumo, esp humo, rou fum, lit dūmai, let dumi, rus дым, pol dym, sc dim, tch dým, alb tym

kel-*

<crier, call /  coq, cock>

gal

skr uṣā-kala-, gaul caliaco-, virl cailech, gael coileach, gal ceilog, bre kilhog, lat gallus, it, es gallo, por galo, cat gall, oc gal = coq + lit gaidys, let gailis

ghordhos*

<enclos/ure  jardin, garden>

gardin

lat hortus, gaul gorto, vha gardo, al Garten, ang garden, it giardino, fr jardin, esp jardín, roum grădină

gegona*, gnyō*

naître, be born

geno

sk janāna, hin janm lenā, gr γέγονα, gr.m γεννιέμαι, virl gainur, gal genni, arm dznil + lit gimti, let dzimt   

gwer-*, gwel-*

< avaler, swallow /

 gorge, throat  >

gol

skr galah, hi galā, pers galu, arm gogort, lat gula, it gola, cat gola (gorge), por goela = gosier, fr gueule, esp gula (gourmandise), rus горло, pol gardło, tc hrdlo, sc grlo, lit gerklé = gorge, br gourlañchenn = gosier, + al Kehle, nd keel (gorge)

ghans*

oie, goose

gos

sk hamsás, pers ghāz, gr χην, lat anser, esp, por ganso, roum giscă, gael , br gwaz, al Gans, ang goose, sué, da gås, rus гусь, pol gęś, let zoss

ghostis*

< étranger   (hôte, guest  >)

gost

lat hostis, hospitem, it ospite, cat hoste, al Gast, sué gäst, da gæst ang guest, rus гость, pol gość, sc gost, tch host, gal gwestai

gwōus*

bœuf, vache, ox, cow

gov, -a

sk gáus, hin gāy, gāu, av gāuš, pers gāv, arm gov, let govs, gr βους, lat bos, fr bœuf, ang cow, nd koe, al Kuh, sué ko, gael

ghrebh-*

< creuser, dig /  tombe, grave  >

grub

al Grab, nd graf, su, da, no grav, ang grave = tombe, rus гроб  = cercueil, гробница = tombeau, pol grób, tc hrob, sr, cr grob, slo gròb, rum groapă, tsik grópo = tombe    + pers gur = tombe

gustis*

goût, taste

gust

sk jústis (amour), gr γεύση, lat gustus, esp, it gusto, cat, roum gust, rus вкус, tch vkus, sc ukus, pol gust

kerdhos*

troupeau, herd

herd

skr śárdhas, al Herde, ang, da, sué, nor hjord (trou-peau), fr harde; nd herder, lit kerdžius (berger), gr κόρθυς (tas), gal cordd (foule)

yōros*

< année, year, nouvelle saison/ heure, hour  >

hor

gr ώρος = temps, année, saison, lat hora = temps, heure, it ora, es, cat hora, oc ora, fr heure, rum oră, ang hour, al Uhr, nd uur, grm ώρα, alb orë, gael uair, gal awr, bret eur, hong óra = heure

eg*, egō*

je, I

i

sk aham, arm es, gr εγώ, lat ego, it io, esp yo, por, rou eu, cat jo, fr je, al ich, nd ik, ang I, da jeg, sué jag, rus я, sc, pol ja, tch , lit , let es

en(i)*

dans, en / in

in

arm i, gr εν, alb inj, lat, it, in, esp, fr en, rum în,  got in, aha, ags in > al, ang, nd in, su, da, no i, gaul eni-, in, gael i(n), gal yn-, bret e(n), v.prus en, lit į, let ie-,

eimi*, itā*

aller, to go

ito

sk éti, av aēiti, gr είμι, lat eo, ito, vsl iti, rus идти, sc ići, tch jíti, pol iść, lit eiti, let iet

yoros*

année, year

jar

av yārә, gr ώρος, aha jār, al Jahr, nd jaar, ang year, su, da, nor år (année), vsl jarŭ, tch jaro (printemps)

edmi*

manger, eat

jedo

sk ádmi, arm udèl, gr έδω, lat edo, gael ith, al essen, nd eten, ang eat, da æde, lit esti (edu), let ēst, rus есть, sc jesti (jedem), tch jíst (jedim), pol jesć

yugom*

joug, yoke

jug

sk yugám, gr ζυγόν, lat jugum, esp yugo, roum jug, br ieo, gal iau, ang yoke, al Joch, nd juk, lit jùngas, let jūgs, rus иго, tch jho, hit yukan

yuwōn*

jeune

jun

sk yúvan-, hin yuvā, pers javān, lat juvenis, esp joven, br yaouank, gal ifanc, al jung, ang young, sué, da ung, lit jaunas, let jauns, rus юный  

kwo-*, kwe-*, kwa-*, kwei-*

< interrogatifs  /  que, quoi, what  >

ka ?

skr káh = qui, kím, hi kyā = quoi, pers ki = qui, či = que, alb = qui, lat qui, it che, es qué = quoi, gael cad, al was, ang what, da hvad = que, lit kás, let kas = qui, quoi, rus что, pol, tc co, sc šta, što, slo kaj = que, quoi   

kwom*, kwodā*

quand, when

kan ? wan

sk kadā, hin kab, av ka∂a, kәm, lat, it quando, esp cuándo, roum când, al wann, ang when, nd wan- neer,  lit kada, let kad, rus когда, sc kad

kērd*

coeur, heart

karʒ

skr hṛd, hi hridae, arm sird, gr καρδία, lat cor, it cuore, esp corazón, por coração, rum cord, gael croi, al Herz, nd hart, ang heart, da hjerte, su hjärta, lit širdìs, let sirds, rus сердце, tc srdce, sc srce, pol serce, hit ker, kardi- = coeur

ghebhǝlā*   + kaput*

tête, head

keb

gr κεφαλή + sk kapálam (crâne), lat caput, it capo, rou cap, esp cabeza, al Haupt (+ Kopf), ang head, nd hoofd (+ kop), da hoved, sué huvud

kāros*

cher, aimé

keri

sk cārus (agréable), lat carus, it, esp, por caro (cher), gael cara, gal car (ami), br ker, sué kär, da kær, nor kjær + esp querido (cher)

kleyō*, klinami*

pencher, to lean   (être  incliné, recline  >)

klino

gr κλίνω, lat clino, esp inclinar, fr incliner, roum inclina, ang incline, gael claon, al lehnen, ang lean, lit šlieti, + rus наклонить, tch kloniti, pol skłonić = incliner

klāw(is*)

clé, verrou / key, bolt  /

fermer, close  >

kluzo

gr κλείω, grm κλείνω = fermer, lat cludo (clusum), it chiudere, rum închide, oc claure, cat cloure, fr clore, ang close = fermer, br klaviañ = verrouiller, al schließen, nd sluiten, su sluta, da slutte = fermer, rus ключ, sc ključ, pol klucz = clé

kwolsos*

cou, neck

kol

lat collus, it collo, esp cuello, por colo, cat coll, al Hals, nd, da, sué hals, lit kaklas, let kokls (cou), virl coll (tête)

koln-*, kḷnis*

colline, hill

koln

gr κολωνός, lat collis, it collina, esp, por colina, occ còla, rou colină, fr colline, ang hill, rus холм; lit kalnas, let kalns (mont) + sué kulle …

gen-*,  gṇnāmi*, gnōskō*

connaître, know

kono

skr janati, hi jānnā = connaître, arm dzanot = connu, gal gnawt = bien connu, gr γιγνώσκω, lat cognosco, it conoscere, es conocer, rum a cunoaște, al, nd kennen, su känna, ang know, lit žinoti, let zināt, rus знать, sc znati, pol znać = connaître

kerǝs*, kern-*

corne, horn

korn

sk śṛṅga, hi siñg, gr κέρας, lat cornu, it, por corno, esp cuerno, rou corn, fr corne, gal corn, br korn, al Horn, ang, da, sué horn, nd horen …

kwōn*

chien, dog

kun

sk śvā, av spā, arm šun, gr κύων, lat canis, it cane, por cão, rou câine, fr chien, al, da, sué, no Hund, nd hond, let suns, lit šuõ/šuns, gal ci, br ki…

kr-t-tó-*, *kr-tó-

<coupé, cut / court, short  >

kurti

lat curtus = tronqué, it, es corto, oc cort, cat curt, roum scurt, fr court, al kurz, nd kort, ang short, da, no, su kort, rus короткий, sc kratak, tc krátký, pol krótki = court + gael gairid, arm gardj = court

skūts*, skēuts*

peau, skin

kut

gr σκύτος , lat cutis, it cute, esp, cat cutis, por cútis, aha hūt, al Haut, nd huid, sué, da hud + rus кожа, sc koža, tch kůže (peau)

lngwhús*

léger, light

lej

sk laghu, gr ελαφρός, lat levis, it leggero, esp ligero, por leve, al leicht, nd licht, ang light, da lett, lit lengvas, rus лёгкий, pol lekki, tch lehký

leghmi*

être couché, to lie

leʒo

lat lectus (lit), gr λέχομαι, virl lagaid, gael luigh, al liegen, nd liggen, ang lie, da ligge, sué ligga, rus лежать, tch ležeti, pol leżeć, srcr ležati

dnhgwā*

 langue / tongue, language  

ling, linga

sk jihvā, hin jibh, av hizvā, arm lezu, lat, it lingua, esp lengua, nd tong, al Zunge, sué tunga, lit liežuvis, rus язык, sc jezik, tch jazyk

louks*, loukís*

lumière

luc

sk rocís, hi rošnī, av raocah, arm luys, lat lux, it luce, esp, por luz, al, nd Licht, ang light, da lys, sué ljus, slove luč (lum.) rus луч, sc luč (rayon)

me*

me, moi /me

ma

sk ma, av ma, hi mèñ, alb mua, gr με, lat, esp, por me, it mi, rou , fr, ang me, al mich, da, sué mig, rus меня, tch ,sc me, lit mane, let mani

manus*

homme

man

sk mánusa-, hin mānav, got manna, al Mann, nd, ang man, da mand, sué, nor mann, rus муж(чина), sc muž, pol mąż, tch muž

mori*

mer

mar

lat mare, it, roum mare, esp, por mar, fr mer, virl, gael muir, gal, br mor al Meer, море, sc more, tch moře, pol morze + nd meer, ang mere (lac)

mātēr*

mère

mata

sk mātár-, hin mātā, av mātar, pers madar, arm mair, gr μήτηρ, lat mater, esp, it madre, gael mathair, al Mutter, da mor, let māte, rus мать

menos-*, mntís*

pensée, esprit / thought, mind 

men, ment

sk mánas, av manah, lat mens, it mente, roum minte, gael méin, meon, ang mind (esprit) gr μένος (âme, force vitale), lit mintis (pensée)

mēmsom*

viande, meat

mias

sk māmsám, hin mās, arm mis, alb mish, lit mėsa, let miesa (corps), rus мясо, tch maso, pol mięso, sc meso + ang meat

mer-*, (e)mrto*

mourir, to die

moro

sk marati, hin marnā, av mriyeite, pers mordan, arm mérnel, lat morior, it morire, esp morir, let mirt, lit mirti, tch umírati, br mervel

mūs*

souris, mouse

mus

sk mūs, pers muš, arm mug, gr μυς, alb , lat mus, al Maus, ang mouse nd muis, sué, da, nor mus, rus мышь, tch myš, pol mysz, sc miš

nās*

nez, nose

nas

sk nas-, hin nāk, av nāh-, lat nasum, it naso, roum nas, fr nez, al Nase, ang nose nd neus, da næse, sué näsa, lit nosis, rus нос, tch, sc pol nos

nāus*

bateau, navire

nav

sk náus, hin nāv, pers nāv, arm nav, gr ναύς, lat navis, it nave, esp nave, fr navire  

ne*, nei*, ṇ-*

ne pas, not,

 non, no

ne

sk na, hi , pers na, lat, it non, esp no, rou nu, por não, ang not, al nicht nd niet, rus не, pol nie, sc, tch, lit, let ne, gael , gal ni, br ne, alb nuk

nokts*

nuit, night

noc

sk nákt-, gr νυξ, alb natë, lat nox, it notte, esp noche, br noz, ang night, al, nd Nacht , da nat, let nakts, lit naktis, rus ночь, sc noć, tch, pol noc

nōmn*, enmn*

nom, name

nom

sk, av nāma, hin, pers nām, arm anun, gr όνομα, lat nomen, it nome, esp nombre, roum nume, ang, al Name, nd naam, sué namn, rus имя, tch jméno

newos*

nouveau, new

novi

sk návas, hin navīn, av navō, pers nou, gr νέος, lat novus, it nuovo, por novo, br nevez, al neu, ang new, da ny, rus новый, sc novi, lit naujas

nogwo(dho)s*

nu, naked

nuki

sk nagnás, hin nañgā, lat nudus, it, esp nudo, fr, por, cat nu, gal noeth, br noazh, al nackt, sué naken, lit nuogas, rus нагой, sc nag, pol nagi

ōwyom*, ōyo-

œuf, egg

ov

gr ωιόν, arm dju, havgit, lat ovum, it uovo, esp huevo, por ovo, roum ou, gael ubh, al, nd Ei, ang egg, da æg, rus яйцо, tch vejce, br vi, alb ve  

ówis*, owikā*

mouton, sheep, brebis, ewe

ovin, -a

sk ávis, gr όις, lat ovis, roum oaie (mouton), esp oveja, por ovelha, ang ewe, lit avis, rus овца, sc ovca, tch ovce, pol owca (brebis)

pәtēr*

père, father

pater

sk pitár-, hin pitā, av pitar-, pers pedar, gr πατήρ, lat pater, esp, it padre, cat pare, al Vater, nd vader, ang father, sué far, gael athair

pibō*

boire,  drink

pivo

sk pibati, hin pīnā, gr πίνω, alb pi, lat bibo, it bevo (je bois), bret evañ, rus пить, bul пия, sc piti, tch píti, pol pić

pōts*

pied,  foot

pod

sk pāt, hin pair, av pad-, gr πους, ποδός, lat pes, pedis, it piede, esp pie, por pé, al Fuß, nd voet, ang foot, da fod, sué, nor fot, let pēda, lit pėda

plnos*

plein, full

polen

sk pūrnás, pers por, gr πλέος, alb pljot, lat plenus, it pieno, al voll, ang, sué full, rus полный, pol pelny, lit pilnas, let pilns, gael lán, br leun

prkskō*

demander, ask

prago

sk prccháti, hin pūchanā, lat posco (+ precor = prier), al fragen, nd vragen, vs, tch prositi, lit prašyti, let prasīt, rus спрашивать, slo vprašati + esp preguntar

rēgs*,  rēgnī*

roi, reine  king, queen

raj, raja

sk rāja, rājñī, hin rājā, rānī, lat rex, regina, gaul rix, it re, regina, roum rege, regină, por rei, rainha, esp rey, reina, fr roi, reine, gael , br roue 

sal(d)*

sel, salt

salt

gr αλς, grm αλάτι, lat sal, it sale, esp sal, rou sare, gael salann, gal halen, al Salz, ang, sué, da salt, let sals, rus соль, pol sól, sc sol, tch sůl

sed-*, sizdō*, sēd*

être assis, to sit

sedo

sk sīdati, av hi∂aiti, gr έζομαι, lat, it sedere, virl saidid, gal seddu, al sitzen, ang sit, da sidde, lit sédëti, let sēdēt, rus сидеть, tch seděti

swésōr*

sœur, sister

sesta

sk svásar-, av xvanhar-, pers khāhar, arm khoyr, lat soror, it sorella, al Schwester, ang sister, sué syster, lit sesuõ, rus сестра, sc, tch sestra

snoigwhos*

neige, snow

snev

prāk sineha, av snaēža, gr νίφα, lat nix, nivis, iτ, por neve, esp nieve, gal nyf, al Schnee, nd sneeuw, da sne, rus снег, tch sníh, let sniegs

swépmi, swōpeyō*

dormir, sleep

sopo

sk svápiti, av xvap-, hin sonā, lat sopio, it sopire, visl sofa, isl sofa, da, nor sove, sué sova, rus спать, pol spać, tch spát, sc spavati

spekyō*

regarder,              to watch

speko

skr spáśati, páśyati, av spasyeiti, gr σκέπτομαι (consi-dérer), lat specio, specto (regarder), it spiare, al spähen, ang spy, sué speja (épier)

tauros*

taureau, bull

taur

gr ταύρος, alb tarok, lat taurus, it, esp toro, por touro, rou taur, br tarv, gael, tarbh, gal tarw, sué tjur, da tyr, al, nd Stier; pol, rus tur (auroch) 

tū*

tu, you (singular)

tu

sk tvam, hi , av tu, pers to, alb ti, arm tu, lat tu, esp , it, por, fr, rou tu, gael , gal ti, br te, al, sué, da du, lit, let tu, rus ты, tch, pol ty, sc ti

woghos*

<char,chariot  / voiture,car>  

vag sk vahas, gr όχος, lat vehis, fr véhicule, viel fén, gal gwain, al, nd wagen, sué vagn, da, nor vogn, lit vežimas, tch vůz

gwhermos*

chaud, warm

varmi

sk gharma (chaleur), hin garam, av garәmō, pers garm, arm tcherm, gr θερμός, lat formus, al, ang, nd warm, sué, da, varm,   

wésṛ*

printemps,  spring

verna

sk vasantás, hin vasañt, av vanri, arm garun, gr έαρ, lat ver, it prima-vera,sué, da, nor vår, lit, let pa-vasaris, rus весна, tch vesna, pol wiosna

widhéwā*

veuve, widow

vidova

sk vidhávā, hin vidhvā, av vi∂avā, lat vidua, it vedova, esp viuda, ang widow, al Witwe, nd weduwe, rus вдова, tch vdova, pol wdowa

wēntos*, wēyus*

vent, wind

vint

sk vātas, hi vāyu, av vātō, lat ventus, it vento, esp viento, rou vînt, ang, al, nd wind, da vind, rus ветер, tch vítr, pol wiatr, lit vėjas, let vējš

wōkws*

voix, voice

voc

sk vāk, av vāxš, gr όσσα, όπα, lat vox, it, roum voce, esp, por voz, cat veu, occ votz, fr voix, ang voice, V/ voko

wódr*, wedōr*

eau, water

vod

sk udán, gr ύδωρ, rus вода, sc, tch voda, pol woda, lit vanduõ, let ūdens, da vand, sué vatten, ang, nd water, al Wasser, gael uisce

wḹnā*

laine, wool

vuln

sk ūrnā, hin ūn, gr λένος, lat, it, esp lana, al Wolle, ang wool, da uld, sué ull, lit, let vilna, tch vlna, sc vuna, pol wełna, br gloan, gal gwlan

gwenā*

femme, woman

ʒina

sk jánī, av gәnā, pers zan, arm gin, gr/m γυνή/ γυναίκα, virl ben, gael bean, alb zonjë, rus жена, sc, tch žena, sué kvinna, nor kvinne

gwīwos*

vivant, alive

ʒivi

sk jīva, hin jīvit, lat vivus, it, esp vivo, fr vivant, rus живой, sc živ, tch živý, lit gyvas, let dzīvs, gal byw, br beo